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Case Studies 1


The challenge in the project is to ensure the Sea water shall flow with Siphon effect without using any pump. The sea water is being taken into the two ‘suction pipes’ of 2 m OD which are 2.680 km long, inside the sea and center line of pipes are -7 m deep from reference 0.0 m CD level (i.e. from surface of the sea). The Pipelines act as siphon to transfer sea water to the desilting basin.

The scope of the analysis is limited as follows:

  1. To ensure there would be a continuous flow through the system with 30,000 m3/hr through two pipelines.
  2. To determine water level that has to be maintained in the desilting basin and the pump house.
  3. To ensure that there is a continuous gravity flow in the system.
  4. To ensure no vapor formation in the pipe.

Case Studies 2


A Datacenter is a building, dedicated space within a building, or a group of buildings used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Mechanical engineering infrastructure - heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC); humidification and dehumidification equipment; pressurization is one of the considerations in the design of datacenter. This infrastructure has various piping networks across the datacenter. Surge Analysis of these piping networks is carried out.

The scope for the Surge analysis activity has been defined as below:

  1. To determine the maximum Surge pressure that could develop in the system due to sudden closure of the valve .
  2. To ensure surge pressure does not cross the maximum allowable working pressure of the pipe chosen .
  3. To determine the minimum pressure that could develop in the system due to sudden trip of pumps and to ensure that it does no cause excessive vapour volume or vacuum formation in the system.
  4. To ensure the selected valve closure times are adequate to avoid surge.
  5. To check whether the present system has all required equipment / instrumentation present to arrest Surge or Water Hammer. If not, then suggest the mitigations.
  6. To provide Surge forces at various locations in the piping system for designing adequate piping supports.

The scope is mainly distributed in ten massive hydraulic circuits.

Case Studies 3


Aim was to study the surge pressure developed due to sudden closure of Emergency Shutdown valves located at Pig Launcher and Pig Receiver and MOV’s located at various tanks in the tank farm as well as pump trip & start-up scenarios. The main purpose of the study is as follows:

  1. To check the maximum surge pressure generated due to sudden valve closure.
  2. To check the vacuum formation possibility in the system and suggest mitigations, if any.
  3. Surge pressure of each pipeline section for each case to be reviewed and to suggest mitigations / recommendations (if required).
  4. To estimate the unbalance forces at various locations in piping/pipeline.
  5. Ensure the force data generated are given to piping discipline and utilized in stress analysis.

Case Studies 4


The Hydraulic calculations such as

  1. Pressure drop of selected line size is carried out to suggest/recommend minimum pressure head of the Pump.
  2. Line sizing calculation of the discharge piping for the selected Pump model.
  3. *Suggestion of Air valves size and location based on AWWA code

*Note: Transient Hydraulic Analysis is recommended for sizing and location of air valves.